Taxpayers regularly – and perhaps unintentionally – make a tax down payment because some of their cheques are withheld. Technically, taxes are due on April 15 of each year or around April 15, but employers are required to withhold taxes by salary period and send the money to the government on behalf of the employee. Many types of debts and commitments are settled in advance. Businesses can pay rent, wages, revolving lines of credit or other short-term or long-term bonds in advance. Consumers can pay credit card fees in advance before receiving a return, or they can prepay loans through refinancing. Advance payments are the most common prepaid expenses in the business environment. These expenses are fully disbursed during a billing period to allow the consumption of an underlying over a future period. The advance is reclassified into normal loads when the installation is actually used or consumed. A prepaid charge is first classified on the entity`s balance sheet as a current asset. Self-employed workers are expected to pay a tax down payment by making estimated quarterly tax payments. In both cases, the taxpayer is reimbursed in tax refund if he pays more than his eventual tax debt.
Decisions about owners` advances are influenced by a number of variables and are notoriously difficult to predict, which broadens investments in MBS markets from another layer of uncertainty.  Advance speeds can be expressed in MSM (Mono Monthly Mortality), CPR (Conditional Prepayment Rate, i.e. the compound MMS each year) or PSA (percentage of the Prepayment model of the Public Securities Association). For mortgages of at least 30 months, 100% PSA – 6.0% CPR – 0.51% SMM, which corresponds to the total advance of 6% of the remaining mortgages of one pool per year.  Advances are common in a wide range of contexts. Individuals and large corporations are making advances. In the case of a mortgage guarantee (MBS), the down payment is perceived as a financial risk – sometimes referred to as “call risk” – because mortgages are often prepaid to obtain lower interest payments through cheaper refinancing. New financing may be cheaper because the borrower`s creditworthiness has improved or market interest rates have fallen; However, in both cases, the payment to the MBS investor would be higher than the current market rate. Early cashing in these loans in advance reduces the upward trend in credit variability and investor interest rates in an MBS and essentially forces the MBS investor to reinvest the products at lower interest rates.  If, instead, the borrower`s chances deteriorate (solvency decreases or market rates increase), the borrower loses the incentive to refinance, because the existing mortgage interest rate cannot be reduced with a new mortgage. The fact that mbs investors are exposed to a downside risk of the down payment, but rarely benefit from it, means that these bonds must pay a progressively higher interest rate than comparable bonds without prepayment to be attractive investments.
(It is the built-in “option cost” that leads to a reduction in the adjusted option spread.) Similar problems arise with respect to bonds that can be issued in the local government, business and U.S. government sectors.